Aphasia Neuroplasticity Review

Supplementary Table S6. Imaging: Methodology part 1

StudyScannerTimingDesign typeTotal images
Weiller et al. (1995) Y (CTI ECAT 953/15) Y PET 6
Belin et al. (1996) Y (CEA LETI-TTV03) Y PET 4
Ohyama et al. (1996) Y (Headtome IV tomograph) Y PET 6
Heiss et al. (1997) Y (Siemens ECAT EXACT HR) Y PET 2
Karbe et al. (1998) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR) N* (activation and control images not acquired on the same day; number of acquisitions not clearly described) PET 8
Cao et al. (1999) Y (Magnex Scientific 3 Tesla) Y Block 40
Heiss et al. (1999) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR) Y PET 8
Kessler et al. (2000) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR) Y PET 8
Rosen et al. (2000) Y (Siemens 961 EXACT HR; Siemens Vision 1.5 Tesla) N (fMRI timing description is inconsistent) Mixed PET: 10; fMRI: 384-768
Blasi et al. (2002) Y (Siemens Vision 1.5 Tesla) Y Event-related 1024
Leff et al. (2002) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR++/966) Y PET 16
Blank et al. (2003) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR++ (966)) Y PET 15 (patients); 12 (controls)
Cardebat et al. (2003) Y (Siemens ECAT HR+) Y PET 6
Sharp et al. (2004) Y (Siemens HR++ 966) Y PET 16
Zahn et al. (2004) Y (Philips ACS NT Gyroscan 1.5 Tesla) N* (insufficient blocks per experimental condition (3) because blocks were too long (44 s)) Block 198
Crinion & Price (2005) N (Siemens 1.5 Tesla; model not stated) N (the calculated duration of the stimuli, the calculated duration of the acquisitions, and the stated duration of the acquisitions yield three different numbers) Block 460
de Boissezon et al. (2005) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR+) Y PET 6
Connor et al. (2006) Y (Siemens Vision 1.5 Tesla) Y Event-related 1024
Crinion et al. (2006) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR++/966 (16 patients and all controls) or GE Advance (8 patients)) Y PET 12-16
Saur et al. (2006) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 660
Meinzer et al. (2008) Y (Philips Intera 1.5 Tesla) Y Block 160
Raboyeau et al. (2008) Y (Siemens ECAT HR+) Y PET 6
Richter et al. (2008) Y (Siemens Vision plus 1.5 Tesla) N (minor discrepancies in description of timing) Block 134
de Boissezon et al. (2009) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR+) Y PET 6
Fridriksson et al. (2009) N (not stated) N (timing of picture presentation not clearly explained) Event-related 120
Menke et al. (2009) Y (Philips Intera 3 Tesla) N (total images acquired not stated) Event-related Probably ~360, but not stated
Specht et al. (2009) Y (CTI-Siemens HR+) Y PET 9
Warren et al. (2009) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR++/966 (10 patients and all controls) or GE Advance (6 patients)) Y PET 12-16
Chau et al. (2010) N (not stated) N (inconsistent information regarding timing) Block 90?
Fridriksson (2010) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N (timing of stimuli within the silent periods is unclear) Event-related 120
Fridriksson et al. (2010) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N (exact timing of picture presentation not specified) Event-related 120
Sharp et al. (2010) Y (Siemens HR++ 966) Y PET 16
Thompson et al. (2010) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N (total images acquired not stated) Event-related Not stated
Tyler et al. (2010) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N* (there was only one block per condition per run, so condition could be confounded with low frequency drift; also, the length of the sentences is not stated so it is unclear how well the HRF peak aligns with the sparse acquisitions) Block 69
van Oers et al. (2010) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) Y Block 3036
Papoutsi et al. (2011) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N (length of stimuli not described) Event-related 1059
Sebastian & Kiran (2011) N (GE 3 Tesla; model not stated) N* (control events took place in the inter-trial interval between language events, and may have been systematically confounded in timing; the total number of functional images acquired is not stated) Event-related Not stated
Szaflarski et al. (2011) Y (Varian Unity INOVA 4 T) N (timing not clear, because previous studies cited are not all identical in terms of timing) Block Not stated
Tyler et al. (2011) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N (run length not stated; length of stimuli not described) Event-related Not stated but 1059 per Papoutsi et al. (2011)
Weiduschat et al. (2011) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR) Y PET 8
Allendorfer et al. (2012) N (Phillips 3 Tesla; model not stated) Y Mixed 435
Fridriksson et al. (2012a) N (Siemens 3 Tesla; model not stated) N* (it appears that each of the three conditions was presented in a separate run) Event-related 180?
Fridriksson et al. (2012b) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N (timing of stimuli within the silent periods is unclear) Event-related 120
Marcotte et al. (2012) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N (total images acquired not stated) Event-related Not stated
Schofield et al. (2012) Y (Siemens Sonata 1.5 Tesla) Y Block 488
Wright et al. (2012) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N* (there was only one block per condition per run, so condition could be confounded with low frequency drift; also, the length of the sentences is not stated so it is unclear how well the HRF peak aligns with the sparse acquisitions) Block 69
Szaflarski et al. (2013) N (Phillips 3 Tesla; model not stated) Y Block 330
Thiel et al. (2013) Y (CTI-Siemens ECAT EXACT HR) Y PET 8
Abel et al. (2014) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) N* (trials too close together (~8 s) and insufficient jitter (1-3 s) for event-related design) Event-related 560
Benjamin et al. (2014) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) N (total images acquired not stated) Event-related Not stated
Brownsett et al. (2014) Y (Philips Intera 3 Tesla) N* (timing of sentence presentation not described; sparse event-related design, but ITI of only 8 s and consistent linear order of listening and repetition trials could make it difficult to disentangle hemodynamic responses to listening and repeating trials) Event-related 168 (patients); 280 (controls)
Mattioli et al. (2014) Y (Siemens Avanto 1.5 Tesla) N (timing of stimuli not clearly described) Event-related 504
Mohr et al. (2014) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 76
Robson et al. (2014) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) N* (each condition was acquired in a separate run, which is suboptimal) Block 417
Szaflarski et al. (2014) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla, except for 1 patient and 1 control on a Bruker 3 Tesla) Y Block 165
van Hees et al. (2014) Y (Bruker MedSpec 4 Tesla) Y Event-related 610
Abel et al. (2015) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) N* (trials too close together (~8 s) and insufficient jitter (1-3 s) for event-related design) Event-related 560
Kiran et al. (2015) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) N* (picture and scrambled conditions have different durations; ITI 2-4 s seems too short; total images acquired not stated) Event-related Not stated
Sandberg et al. (2015) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) N* (total images acquired not stated; ITI of 1-3 s seems short) Event-related Not stated
Geranmayeh et al. (2016) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 213
Griffis et al. (2016) Y (Varian Unity INOVA 4 Tesla) Y Block 140
Sims et al. (2016) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) N (total images acquired not stated) Event-related Not stated
Darkow et al. (2017) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 100
Geranmayeh et al. (2017) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 213
Griffis et al. (2017a) N (Siemens Allegra 3 Tesla or Philips 3 Tesla; model not stated) Y Block 165
Griffis et al. (2017b) N (Siemens Allegra 3 Tesla or Philips 3 Tesla; model not stated) Y Block 165
Harvey et al. (2017) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) Y Block 200
Nardo et al. (2017) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 696
Nenert et al. (2017) N (Philips 3 Tesla or Siemens 3 Tesla; models not stated) Y Block 600
Qiu et al. (2017) Y (GE Signa 1.5 Tesla) N* (only three pictures were named per 30-second block) Block 186
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017a) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N* (total images acquired not stated; separation of adjacent events (covert and overt naming) will be limited because of the small amount of jitter in their timing (only 1500 ms)) Event-related ~450 but not stated
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017b) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla) N* (total images acquired not stated; separation of adjacent events (covert and overt naming) will be limited because of the small amount of jitter in their timing (only 1500 ms)) Event-related ~450 but not stated
Dietz et al. (2018) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 135
Hallam et al. (2018) Y (GE Signa HDx 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 348
Nenert et al. (2018) N (Philips 3 Tesla or Siemens 3 Tesla; models not stated) Y Block 600
Pillay et al. (2018) Y (GE Excite 3 Tesla) N (precise timing of stimuli not stated; total images acquired not stated) Event-related Not stated
Szaflarski et al. (2018) Y (Siemens Allegra 3 Tesla) Y Block 330
van de Sandt-Koenderman et al. (2018) N (GE 3 Tesla; model not stated) Y Block 132
van Oers et al. (2018) Y (Philips Achieva 3 Tesla) N* (stimulus presentation was self-paced, but the ITI is not reported, nor are the number of trials presented per condition; it is likely that the language and control blocks contained different numbers of trials) Block 1656
Barbieri et al. (2019) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla or Siemens Prisma 3 Tesla) N* (stimulus timing described does not match stated duration of data acquisition; timing of language and control trials not matched) Block ~482
Johnson et al. (2019) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla, except for 2 patients on a Siemens Prisma 3 Tesla) N* (total images not stated; short ITI and minimal jitter) Event-related Not stated
Kristinsson et al. (2019) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla or Siemens Prisma 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 60
Purcell et al. (2019) N (not stated) Y Event-related 1232 (four runs distributed over two days)
Sreedharan et al. (2019b) Y (Siemens Avanto 1.5 Tesla) N* (picture naming events consistently located between blocks) Mixed Probably 964
Hartwigsen et al. (2020) Y (Siemens Verio 3 Tesla) N* (stimulus timing not described in detail; stated duration of data acquisition substantially outside possible range of duration of stimuli) Block 740
Stockert et al. (2020) Y (Siemens Trio 3 Tesla or Siemens Verio 3 Tesla) Y Event-related 660 (20 patients; paradigm 1) or 260 (14 patients; paradigm 2)

Scanner = Is the scanner described?; Timing = Is the timing of stimulus presentation and image acquisition clearly described and appropriate?; Total images = Total images acquired; fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging; HRF = hemodynamic response function; ITI = inter-trial interval; N = No; PET = positron emission tomography; Y = Yes; Yellow underline = minor limitation; Orange underline/* = moderate limitation.