Aphasia Neuroplasticity Review

Supplementary Table S5. Imaging: Design

StudyModalityStudy timingTime pointsIntervention
Weiller et al. (1995) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Belin et al. (1996) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Ohyama et al. (1996) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Heiss et al. (1997) PET (rCMRgl) Longitudinal—recovery T1: ~4 weeks; T2: ~12-18 months Not stated
Karbe et al. (1998) PET (rCMRgl) Longitudinal—recovery T1: mean 24 ± 11 days, ~3-4 weeks; T2: mean 19 ± 2 months, > 1 year Not stated
Cao et al. (1999) fMRI Cross-sectional
Heiss et al. (1999) PET (rCBF) Longitudinal—recovery T1: ~2 weeks; T2: ~8 weeks Not stated
Kessler et al. (2000) PET (rCBF) Longitudinal—mixed T1: pre-treatment, ~2 weeks post onset; T2: post-treatment, ~8 weeks post onset SLT, 1 hour/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks; 12 patients received piracetam and 12 received placebo; note that the two groups are not directly compared in any imaging or behavioral analyses
Rosen et al. (2000) PET and fMRI Cross-sectional
Blasi et al. (2002) fMRI Cross-sectional
Leff et al. (2002) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Blank et al. (2003) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Cardebat et al. (2003) PET (rCBF) Longitudinal—recovery T1: 58 ± 35 days, range 11-113 days; T2: 11.7 ± 1.6 months, range 320-460 days; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute Not stated
Sharp et al. (2004) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Zahn et al. (2004) fMRI Cross-sectional
Crinion & Price (2005) fMRI Cross-sectional
de Boissezon et al. (2005) PET (rCBF) Longitudinal—recovery T1: mean 53 ± 35 days, range 11-108 days; T2: mean 12.2 ± 1.4 months; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute Not stated
Connor et al. (2006) fMRI Cross-sectional
Crinion et al. (2006) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Saur et al. (2006) fMRI Longitudinal—recovery T1 acute: mean 1.8 days, range 0-4 days; T2 subacute: mean 12.1 days, range 3-16 days; T3 chronic: mean 321 days, range 102-513 days Standard SLT throughout the observation period including at least 3 weeks inpatient
Meinzer et al. (2008) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~2 weeks later CIAT, 3 hours/day, 5 days/week, 2 weeks
Raboyeau et al. (2008) PET (rCBF) Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~4 weeks later Lexical training, 15 minutes/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks; the control group were trained to relearn foreign words that they had learned in school but since mostly forgotten
Richter et al. (2008) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~2 weeks later CIAT, 3 hours/day, 10 days
de Boissezon et al. (2009) PET (rCBF) Longitudinal—recovery T1: mean 64 ± 32 days; T2: mean 11.8 ± 1.4 months; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute Community SLT; 45 minutes/day, 1-3 days/week
Fridriksson et al. (2009) fMRI Cross-sectional
Menke et al. (2009) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~2 weeks later; T3: 8 months after the end of treatment Intensive anomia training; 3 hours/day; 2 weeks
Specht et al. (2009) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Warren et al. (2009) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Chau et al. (2010) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~10 weeks later Acupuncture, 3 sessions/week, 8 weeks
Fridriksson (2010) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment/~4 weeks later; note that there were two separate sessions per time point, as well as another two sessions midway through treatment that are not analyzed in this paper Anomia treatment using a cueing hierarchy, 3 hours/day, 5 days/week, 2 weeks, with a 1-week gap between the two weeks
Fridriksson et al. (2010) fMRI Cross-sectional
Sharp et al. (2010) PET (rCBF) Cross-sectional
Thompson et al. (2010) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, 9-15 weeks later Treatment of underlying forms
Tyler et al. (2010) fMRI Cross-sectional
van Oers et al. (2010) fMRI Cross-sectional Behavioral data (TT and a naming measure) were also acquired subacutely (mean 26 ± 18 days, range 5-56 days)
Papoutsi et al. (2011) fMRI Cross-sectional
Sebastian & Kiran (2011) fMRI Cross-sectional
Szaflarski et al. (2011) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~2 weeks later RTMS to residual activation near Broca's area, 5 sessions/week, 2 weeks
Tyler et al. (2011) fMRI Cross-sectional
Weiduschat et al. (2011) PET (rCBF) Longitudinal—mixed T1: pre-treatment/subacute (range 18-97 days post onset); T2: post-treatment, ~2 weeks later Individualized SLT, 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week, 2 weeks; 6 patients underwent rTMS to the R IFG pars triangularis; 4 received vertex (sham) rTMS
Allendorfer et al. (2012) fMRI Cross-sectional
Fridriksson et al. (2012a) fMRI Cross-sectional
Fridriksson et al. (2012b) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment/~4 weeks later; note that there were two separate sessions per time point, as well as another two sessions midway through treatment that are not analyzed in this paper Anomia treatment using a cueing hierarchy, 3 hours/day, 5 days/week, 2 weeks, with a 1-week gap between the two weeks
Marcotte et al. (2012) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, 3-6 weeks later (after 80% performance on trained items, or 6 weeks) Semantic feature analysis, 1 hour/day, 3 days/week, 3-6 weeks
Schofield et al. (2012) fMRI Cross-sectional
Wright et al. (2012) fMRI Cross-sectional
Szaflarski et al. (2013) fMRI Cross-sectional
Thiel et al. (2013) PET (rCBF) Longitudinal—mixed T1: pre-treatment/subacute (rTMS group: mean 37.5 ± 18.5 days post onset; sham group: mean 50.6 ± 22.6 days post onset); T2 post-treatment, ~2.5 weeks later RTMS group: inhibitory rTMS over the R IFG pars triangularis + SLT for 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week, 2 weeks; control group: sham TMS + SLT
Abel et al. (2014) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~6 weeks later (labeled T2 and T3 in paper) Lexical therapy, alternating between weeks with phonological and semantic treatment, 4 weeks; 60 out of the 132 items were trained
Benjamin et al. (2014) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment; T3: 3 months after the end of treatment Word finding therapy for both groups, but the intention group had to produce complex left hand movements, while the control group did not; note that groups were not directly compared in any imaging analyses
Brownsett et al. (2014) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment Patients: T1: acclimatization/chronic (but used in some analyses); T2: pre-treatment/chronic (not stated how long after T1); T3: post-treatment/~4 weeks later; controls: T1: pre-training; T2: post-training/~2 weeks later Patients: home-based therapy consisting of auditory discrimination and repetition tasks for 3 or 4 weeks between T2 and T3; control: 2 weeks of similar training using noise vocoded speech
Mattioli et al. (2014) fMRI Longitudinal—mixed T1: pre-treatment, mean 2.2 ± 1.3 days post onset; T2: post-treatment, mean 16.2 ± 1.3 days post onset; T3: mean 190 ± 25.5 days post onset 6 patients were randomized to receive treatment focusing on verbal comprehension and lexical retrieval for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week between T1 and T2; no patient received treatment after T2
Mohr et al. (2014) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~2 weeks later CIAT, 3-4 hours/day, 5 days/week, 2 weeks
Robson et al. (2014) fMRI Cross-sectional
Szaflarski et al. (2014) fMRI Cross-sectional
van Hees et al. (2014) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, 5-6 weeks later; note that "immediate improvement" was measured at the end of SLT, a week or two prior to T2 scan SLT with alternating semantic and phonological sessions, 3 days/week, 4 weeks
Abel et al. (2015) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~6 weeks later (labeled T2 and T3 in paper) Lexical therapy, alternating between weeks with phonological and semantic treatment, 4 weeks; 60 out of the 132 items were trained
Kiran et al. (2015) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~10 weeks later Semantic feature-based treatment, 10 weeks
Sandberg et al. (2015) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, up to 10 weeks later Semantic feature-based treatment, 2 hours/day, 2 days/week, up to 10 weeks (depending on when criterion reached)
Geranmayeh et al. (2016) fMRI Cross-sectional
Griffis et al. (2016) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~2 weeks later RTMS to residual activation near Broca's area, 5 sessions/week, 2 weeks
Sims et al. (2016) fMRI Cross-sectional
Darkow et al. (2017) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1/T2: chronic; tDCS and sham sessions in randomized order
Geranmayeh et al. (2017) fMRI Longitudinal—recovery T1: 15 ± 7.6 days (range 5-35 days); T2: 108 ± 26 days (range 87-200 days) Variable modest amounts of SLT (range 0-18 hours) reported in Supplementary Table 1
Griffis et al. (2017a) fMRI Cross-sectional
Griffis et al. (2017b) fMRI Cross-sectional
Harvey et al. (2017) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, 2 months after treatment; T3: 6 months after treatment (the 2-month time point was not included in analysis because there was no significant behavioral effect at that time) Inhibitory rTMS to R IFG, 10 days
Nardo et al. (2017) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~6 weeks later Anomia treatment (computer-based practice), 2+ hours/day, 6 weeks
Nenert et al. (2017) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~3 weeks later; T3: 3 months after the end of treatment CIAT, 4 hours/day, 5 days/week, 2 weeks
Qiu et al. (2017) fMRI Cross-sectional
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017a) fMRI Cross-sectional
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017b) fMRI Cross-sectional
Dietz et al. (2018) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~4 weeks later AAC group: treatment aimed at teaching participants how to utilize AAC to facilitate discourse; usual care group: traditional SLT, not focused on discourse or AAC specifically
Hallam et al. (2018) fMRI Cross-sectional
Nenert et al. (2018) fMRI Longitudinal—recovery T1: ~2 weeks; T2: ~6 weeks; T3: ~12 weeks; T4: ~26 weeks; T5: ~52 weeks Not stated
Pillay et al. (2018) fMRI Cross-sectional
Szaflarski et al. (2018) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic (1-2 weeks prior to treatment); T2: post-treatment (within 1 week after end of 2-week treatment); T3: 13-20 weeks after end of treatment Modified CIAT + intermittent theta burst stimulation to residual left hemispheric language activation, 45 minutes/session, 5 days/week, 2 weeks
van de Sandt-Koenderman et al. (2018) fMRI Longitudinal—mixed T1: pre treatment/subacute or chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~6 weeks later MIT, 5+ hours/week
van Oers et al. (2018) fMRI Longitudinal—recovery T1: within 2 weeks; T2: ~3 months; T3: ~6 months; T4: ~12 months; specific timing of first time point not stated Not stated
Barbieri et al. (2019) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~12 weeks later 13 patients were treated and 5 were not; treatment of underlying forms; 90 minutes/session, 2 sessions/week until 80% accuracy met on weekly probe task, then 1 session/week, 12 weeks except for one patient who demonstrated rapid improvement and completed treatment in 6 weeks
Johnson et al. (2019) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, ~12 weeks later Semantic naming treatment, 2 sessions/week
Kristinsson et al. (2019) fMRI Cross-sectional
Purcell et al. (2019) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1: pre-treatment/chronic; T2: post-treatment, 6-24 weeks later Spelling treatment, 60-80 minutes/day, 2 days/week, range 6-24 weeks
Sreedharan et al. (2019b) fMRI Longitudinal—mixed Neurofeedback group: T1: pre-treatment/subacute; T2: 1-5 weeks later; T3: 2-6 weeks after T1; T4: 3-11 weeks after T1; T5: 4-12 weeks after T1; T6: 5-12 weeks after T1; no training group: T1: subacute; T2: 2-12 weeks later; controls: T1: start of study; T2: 1-4 weeks later; T3: 3-5 weeks after T1; T4: 4-8 weeks after T1; T5: 7-37 weeks after T1; T6: 12-43 weeks after T1 4 patients received 4 additional sessions involving neurofeedback training, while 4 patients received treatment as usual
Hartwigsen et al. (2020) fMRI Longitudinal—chronic treatment T1/T2/T3: chronic; sessions consisted of cTBS over left anterior IFG, cTBS over left posterior IFG, or sham; sessions at least 7 days apart in randomized order CTBS
Stockert et al. (2020) fMRI Longitudinal—recovery T1 acute: 1-7 days; T2 subacute: 8-21 days; T3 chronic: > 6 months Not stated

Study timing = Is the study cross-sectional or longitudinal?; Time points = If longitudinal, at what time point(s) were imaging data acquired?; Intervention = If longitudinal, was there any intervention between the time points?; AAC = Augmentative and Alternative Communication; CIAT = constraint-induced aphasia therapy; fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging; IFG = inferior frontal gyrus; MIT = melodic intonation therapy; PET = positron emission tomography; R = right; rCBF = regional cerebral blood flow; rCMRgl = regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; SLT = speech-language therapy; T1, T2, etc. = first time point, second time point, etc.; tDCS = transcranial direct current stimulation; TT = Token Test; Yellow underline = minor limitation.