Aphasia Neuroplasticity Review

Supplementary Table S4. Participants: Characterization of neurological status

StudyFirst strokeStroke typeLesionLesion extentLesion location
Weiller et al. (1995) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions Not stated Posterior L MCA infarct, lesion to the L posterior STG usually extending to MTG and AG
Belin et al. (1996) Not stated Not stated Individual lesions Not stated, but note that hypoperfusion greatly exceeded the infarct in all but 1 patient L MCA; 2 also had ACA
Ohyama et al. (1996) Yes Ischemic only Extent and location Mean 33.9 ± 26.3 cc, range 8.1-113.2 cc L perisylvian
Heiss et al. (1997) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions Range 27.2-133.2 cc L MCA; 5 patients had superior temporal damage and 1 had subcortical damage underlying posterior superior temporal cortex
Karbe et al. (1998) Yes Ischemic only Extent and location Range 2-133 cc L MCA
Cao et al. (1999) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions Extents are reported in three dimensions 4 L MCA, 2 L ICA
Heiss et al. (1999) Yes Ischemic only Extent and location Range 4.3-154.3 cc (probably; units not stated) L MCA; 9 subcortical, 7 frontal, 7 temporal
Kessler et al. (2000) Yes Ischemic only Location only Not stated 10 L frontal, 6 L subcortical, 8 L temporal
Rosen et al. (2000) Yes Not stated Individual lesions Range 10.7-117.5 cc L IFG, extending to neighboring areas in most cases
Blasi et al. (2002) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions Not stated L IFG and operculum, extending to adjacent cortex and white matter in several cases
Leff et al. (2002) Yes Not stated Extent and location Range 0.5-14% of total brain volume 9 L but sparing pSTS, 6 L including pSTS
Blank et al. (2003) No Not stated Individual lesions Not stated L frontal, occasionally extending into temporal
Cardebat et al. (2003) Yes Mixed etiologies Individual lesions Not stated 4 L subcortical, 2 L prerolandic, 2 L postrolandic
Sharp et al. (2004) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated Lesion in vicinity of L STG; no extensive frontal damage; no inferior temporal damage
Zahn et al. (2004) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Crinion & Price (2005) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
de Boissezon et al. (2005) Yes Mixed etiologies Individual lesions Not stated 5 L non-thalamic subcortical, 2 L thalamic
Connor et al. (2006) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions Not stated L IFG and operculum, extending to adjacent cortex and white matter in several cases
Crinion et al. (2006) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated 6 L but no temporal damage, 9 L temporal damage excluding anterior temporal cortex, 9 L temporal damage including anterior temporal cortex
Saur et al. (2006) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions Not stated L MCA; 4 frontal (2 extending to temporoparietal); 5 temporoparietal (2 extending to subcortical); 4 striatocapsular (2 extending to cortical); 1 frontoparietal
Meinzer et al. (2008) Not stated Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Range 31.0-236.0 cc L
Raboyeau et al. (2008) Yes Not stated Individual lesions Range 29.9-195.2 cc L MCA
Richter et al. (2008) Not stated Not stated Individual lesions Not stated L
de Boissezon et al. (2009) Yes Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Range 0.9-43.4 cc L MCA (7 subcortical, 6 cortical)
Fridriksson et al. (2009) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Range 3.0-342.2 cc L MCA
Menke et al. (2009) Yes Mixed etiologies Individual lesions Not stated L
Specht et al. (2009) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA, with greatest overlap in the posterior STG
Warren et al. (2009) Yes Ischemic only Lesion overlay Patients with positive anterior temporal interconnectivity: mean 93.3 ± 24.0 cc; patients with negative anterior temporal interconnectivity: mean 96.1 ± 27.6 cc L not including anterolateral superior temporal cortex; maximal overlap in posterior superior temporal cortex
Chau et al. (2010) Yes Ischemic only Location only Not stated 3 L MCA, 2 L frontal, 2 L basal ganglia
Fridriksson (2010) Yes Ischemic only Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Fridriksson et al. (2010) Yes Ischemic only Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Sharp et al. (2010) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated Lesion in vicinity of L STG; no extensive frontal damage; no inferior temporal damage
Thompson et al. (2010) Yes Not stated Individual lesions Not stated 5 L MCA, 1 R MCA with aphasia
Tyler et al. (2010) Not stated Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Not stated L
van Oers et al. (2010) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions Range 6.0-167.3 cc L MCA
Papoutsi et al. (2011) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Sebastian & Kiran (2011) Not stated Mixed etiologies Individual lesions Range 23-45 cc L MCA
Szaflarski et al. (2011) Not stated Not stated Individual lesions Not stated L MCA
Tyler et al. (2011) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Weiduschat et al. (2011) Yes Not stated Extent and location Range 0.7-88.9 cc L MCA
Allendorfer et al. (2012) Not stated Ischemic only Individual lesions Range 2.8-248.9 cc L MCA
Fridriksson et al. (2012a) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Fridriksson et al. (2012b) Yes Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Range 7.7-420.5 cc L MCA
Marcotte et al. (2012) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Range 14.6-295.8 cc L MCA
Schofield et al. (2012) Yes Ischemic only Lesion overlay Range 24.2-403.6 cc L MCA
Wright et al. (2012) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Szaflarski et al. (2013) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Recovered: median 9.2 cc, range 2.2-26.5 cc; non-recovered: median 74 cc, range 5.1-206.0 cc L MCA
Thiel et al. (2013) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions RTMS group: 233 ± 197 cc; sham group: 244 ± 243 cc; lesion extent in images appears much smaller than the stated volumes L MCA
Abel et al. (2014) Yes Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA; 2 also had ACA
Benjamin et al. (2014) No Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA, extending frontally at least into the precentral gyrus or underlying white matter
Brownsett et al. (2014) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L temporal and parietal cortex; 4 extended into the frontal lobe; no lesions involved ACA territory
Mattioli et al. (2014) Yes Not stated Individual lesions Range 4.4-158.3 cc (possibly; units stated do not seem correct) L MCA; lesions seem very small in Supplementary Figure 1, but are described as more extensive in Supplementary Table 1
Mohr et al. (2014) Yes Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Robson et al. (2014) Yes Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA; all involved STG extending into IPL and temporoparietal junction; 8 extending into MTL; 4 extending into inferior frontal
Szaflarski et al. (2014) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay 60.1 ± 57.5 cc L MCA
van Hees et al. (2014) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L hemisphere
Abel et al. (2015) Yes Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA; 2 also had ACA
Kiran et al. (2015) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay 24.2-431.6 cc L MCA except for one patient with R MCA and aphasia
Sandberg et al. (2015) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Range 0.3-256.0 cc L MCA
Geranmayeh et al. (2016) No Not stated Lesion overlay Mean 25.4 ± 13.5 cc, range 0.3-168.0 cc L; modest R involvement in 7 cases
Griffis et al. (2016) Not stated Not stated Individual lesions Range 1.4-52.5 cc L MCA
Sims et al. (2016) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Darkow et al. (2017) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Range 9.7-165.1 cc L MCA not including hand motor area
Geranmayeh et al. (2017) No Not stated Lesion overlay Mean 41.4 ± 44.4 cc, range 3.8-173.9 cc L; modest R involvement in 3 cases
Griffis et al. (2017a) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Mean 105.2 ± 76.3 cc L
Griffis et al. (2017b) Yes Not stated Individual lesions Mean 105.2 ± 76.3 cc L
Harvey et al. (2017) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions Range 36.6-252.1 cc L MCA
Nardo et al. (2017) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Nenert et al. (2017) Yes Ischemic only Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Qiu et al. (2017) Yes Mixed etiologies Not at all Not stated L
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017a) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017b) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Mean 27.5 ± 22.9 cc L MCA
Dietz et al. (2018) Yes Ischemic only Individual lesions AAC group: range 7849-30570 voxels; usual care group: 1583-30110 voxels (voxel size not stated) L MCA
Hallam et al. (2018) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Not stated L IFG plus other MCA regions; vATL and pMTG spared
Nenert et al. (2018) No Ischemic only Lesion overlay Not stated L MCA; mostly posterior per Supplementary Figure 2
Pillay et al. (2018) Not stated Ischemic only Lesion overlay Mean 73.4 ± 58.6 cc, range 6.7-227.0 cc 17 L MCA, 2 combined L MCA/ACA, combined 2 L MCA/PCA
Szaflarski et al. (2018) Yes Not stated Individual lesions Not stated L MCA
van de Sandt-Koenderman et al. (2018) Not stated Not stated Extent and location Subacute: range 32.4-141.2 cc (no lesion extent was reported for one subacute participant because there was no tissue loss yet); chronic: range 27.4-87.9 cc 8 L MCA, 1 L SMA and R insular-temporoparietal
van Oers et al. (2018) Yes Ischemic only Lesion overlay Range 9-208 cc L MCA
Barbieri et al. (2019) Yes Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Not stated Mostly L MCA but some lesions include PCA or ACA territory
Johnson et al. (2019) Not stated Not stated Lesion overlay Treated group: 136.6 ± 81.1 cc, range 11.7-317.1 cc; untreated group: 112.7 ± 94.6 cc, range 1.6-317.1 cc Mostly MCA with a few extending into PCA
Kristinsson et al. (2019) No Mixed etiologies Lesion overlay Typical BDNF genotype group: 121.4 ± 73.2 cc; atypical BDNF genotype group: 142.2 ± 88.4 cc L MCA
Purcell et al. (2019) Yes Not stated Lesion overlay Range 7.7-215.0 cc L MCA with L ventral occipitotemporal cortex mostly intact
Sreedharan et al. (2019b) Not stated Not stated Individual lesions Not stated 7 L MCA, 1 bilateral MCA
Hartwigsen et al. (2020) Yes Ischemic only Lesion overlay Range 11.9-176.3 cc Left temporo-parietal cortex; maximal overlap in SMG
Stockert et al. (2020) Yes Ischemic only Lesion overlay Frontal group: mean 69.3 ± 34.0 cc, range 12.3-76.6 cc; temporo-parietal group: mean 54.8 ± 41.1 cc, range 6.2-108.5 cc L MCA, frontal (n = 17) or temporo-parietal (n = 17)

First stroke = First stroke only?; Lesion [column] = To what extent is the lesion distribution characterized?; AAC = Augmentative and Alternative Communication; ACA = anterior cerebral artery; AG = angular gyrus; cc = cubic centimeters; ICA = internal carotid artery; IFG = inferior frontal gyrus; IPL = inferior parietal lobule; L = left; MCA = middle cerebral artery; MTG = middle temporal gyrus; MTL = medial temporal lobe; PCA = posterior cerebral artery; pMTG = posterior middle temporal gyrus; pSTS = posterior superior temporal sulcus; R = right; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; SMA = supplementary motor area; STG = superior temporal gyrus; vATL = ventral anterior temporal lobe; Yellow underline = minor limitation; Orange underline = moderate limitation.