Aphasia Neuroplasticity Review

Supplementary Table S3. Participants: Characterization of aphasia

StudyAphasiaLanguage evaluationAphasia severityAphasia type
Weiller et al. (1995) Comprehensive battery AAT Recovered; not aphasic per formal testing Recovered, but all had moderate-severe Wernicke's aphasia in the subacute period
Belin et al. (1996) Severity and type BDAE Persistent severe non-fluent aphasia followed by marked improvement with MIT 5 global, 2 Broca's
Ohyama et al. (1996) Comprehensive battery WAB AQ mean 74.3 ± 12.2, range 53.8-92.4 6 anomic, 4 atypical, 4 mild Broca's, 1 mild Wernicke's, 1 transcortical sensory; alternately: 10 fluent, 6 non-fluent
Heiss et al. (1997) Severity only Verbal repetition, confrontation naming, oral and written comprehension, reading abilities, TT, phonemic fluency, clinical impression, family interview T1: TT range 37-48; T2: TT range 3-39 (1 missing) T1: 5 global, 1 Wernicke's; T2: not stated
Karbe et al. (1998) Severity and type TT T1: 9 severe; 2 mild; 1 not stated; TT range 3-47 errors; T2: not stated T1: 8 global, 3 anomic, 1 Wernicke's; T2: not stated
Cao et al. (1999) Severity and type ADP ADPASS percentile range 73-99 3 anomic, 1 conduction, 1 recovered, 1 transcortical sensory
Heiss et al. (1999) Severity and type AAT, phonemic fluency T1: subcortical: TT median 8 errors, range 0-17 errors; frontal: TT median 21 errors, range 4-40 errors; temporal: TT median 39 errors, range 1-47 errors; T2: subcortical: TT median 1 error, range 0-14 errors; frontal: TT median 8 errors, range 0-34; temporal: TT median 34 errors, range 0-44 errors T1: 6 Wernicke's, 5 Broca's, 5 residual aphasia, 4 anomic, 2 transcortical sensory, 1 conduction; T2: not stated
Kessler et al. (2000) Severity only AAT T1: piracetam group: TT 17.16 ± 14.31 errors; placebo group: TT 17.91 ± 15.47 errors; T2: piracetam group: TT 9.66 ± 12.62 errors; placebo group: TT 12.50 ± 16.88 errors Not stated
Rosen et al. (2000) Severity and type WAB (except BDAE in 1 patient), reading pseudowords, word stem completion, verb generation, reading single words AQ range 74-97 (missing in 1 patient) 3 anomic, 1 Broca's, 1 not stated, 1 recovered
Blasi et al. (2002) Comprehensive battery WAB or BDAE AQ range 66.5-89.0 in 6 participants, BDAE aphasia severity of 4 in 1 participant, no formal evaluation in 1 participant 3 anomic, 3 transcortical motor, 1 Broca's, 1 not stated; most were Broca's or global acutely
Leff et al. (2002) Not at all PPT (Dutch), British picture vocabulary scale, Action for Dysphasic Adults lexical decision battery, auditory maximal pairs (an offline phoneme discrimination test) Not stated Not stated, but all 6 patients with pSTS damage had single word comprehension deficits acutely
Blank et al. (2003) Type only CAT, QPA Not stated POp+: 4 non-fluent but not agrammatic, 2 agrammatic, 1 recovered; POp-: 4 non-fluent but not agrammatic, 3 recovered
Cardebat et al. (2003) Not at all Not stated Not stated T1: some prominent symptoms are listed for each patient; T2: not stated
Sharp et al. (2004) Severity only Subtests from CAT, subtests from PALPA, Action for dysphasic adults, TROG, PPT Mild Not stated
Zahn et al. (2004) Comprehensive battery AABT, AAT TT percentile range 28-63 3 global, 2 Broca's, 2 unclassifiable; all had been global initially
Crinion & Price (2005) Comprehensive battery CAT Not stated Not stated
de Boissezon et al. (2005) Type only Montreal-Toulouse Aphasia Battery Not stated T1: 2 Broca's, 2 transcortical sensory, 1 anomic, 1 transcortical motor, 1 Wernicke's; T2: 4 recovered, 1 anomic, 1 transcortical motor; 1 transcortical sensory
Connor et al. (2006) Comprehensive battery WAB or BDAE AQ range 66.5-89.0 in 6 participants, BDAE aphasia severity of 4 in 1 participant, no formal evaluation in 1 participant 3 anomic, 3 transcortical motor, 1 Broca's, 1 not stated; most were Broca's or global acutely
Crinion et al. (2006) Comprehensive battery CAT (missing in two participants) Not stated Not stated
Saur et al. (2006) Comprehensive battery AABT, AAT including TT, analysis of spontaneous speech, CETI, Language Recovery Score (LRS) derived from all these measures plus in-scanner task performance T1: LRS mean 0.44, range 0.11-0.81; 1 mild, 1 mild-moderate, 7 moderate, 3 moderate-severe, 2 severe per AAT; T2: LRS mean 0.71, range 0.33-0.92; 2 recovered, 2 recovered-mild, 2 mild, 3 mild-moderate, 3 moderate, 2 severe per AAT; T3: LRS mean 0.91, range 0.66-1.00; 8 recovered, 2 recovered-mild, 3 mild, 1 moderate per AAT T1: 9 non-fluent, 5 fluent; T2: not stated; T3: 6 recovered, 4 minimal language impairment, 3 anomic, 1 global
Meinzer et al. (2008) Comprehensive battery AAT, study-specific picture naming test with 150 items 6 moderate, 4 mild, 1 severe 7 Broca's, 2 Wernicke's, 1 global, 1 unclassified
Raboyeau et al. (2008) Severity and type Montreal-Toulouse Aphasia Battery Mild (but had initially been severe) 4 anomic, 3 conduction, 2 Broca's, 1 AoS
Richter et al. (2008) Comprehensive battery AAT, two subtests of ANELT TT range 5-50 7 anomic, 7 Broca's, 2 global; it was an inclusion criterion that the main deficits were in production
de Boissezon et al. (2009) Comprehensive battery Montreal-Toulouse Aphasia Battery Not stated T1: 3 transcortical motor, 2 anomic, 2 Broca's, 2 transcortical sensory, 2 Wernicke's, 1 conduction, 1 agrammatic; T2: not stated
Fridriksson et al. (2009) Comprehensive battery WAB; BNT AQ range 31.8-91.5 6 anomic, 4 Broca's, 1 transcortical motor; alternatively: 6 fluent, 5 non-fluent
Menke et al. (2009) Comprehensive battery AAT 6 moderate-severe, 2 severe 7 Broca's, 1 global
Specht et al. (2009) Comprehensive battery AAT Not stated 3 global, 3 Wernicke's, 2 amnestic, 2 Broca's, 2 unclassified
Warren et al. (2009) Not at all CAT, TROG Not stated Not stated
Chau et al. (2010) Severity only Cantonese Aphasia Battery (modified WAB) 5 patients had AQ > 75, 2 had AQ < 30 Not stated
Fridriksson (2010) Severity and type WAB AQ mean 60.4 ± 25.6 (including excluded patients) 11 anomic, 10 Broca's, 3 conduction, 1 transcortical motor, 1 Wernicke's (including excluded patients)
Fridriksson et al. (2010) Severity and type WAB AQ mean 77.1, range 47.1-93.7 10 anomic, 3 Broca's, 2 conduction
Sharp et al. (2010) Severity only Subtests from CAT, subtests from PALPA, Action for dysphasic adults, TROG, PPT Mild Not stated
Thompson et al. (2010) Comprehensive battery WAB, NAVS, narrative language sample AQ range 66.8-85.0 All agrammatic; per WAB scores provided: 3 Broca's, 3 unclassified
Tyler et al. (2010) Not at all Sentence-picture matching, lexical decision, phonological similarity, word repetition, sentence repetition, morphological similarity, semantic categorization, sentence acceptability Not stated Not stated
van Oers et al. (2010) Comprehensive battery AAT, BNT, TT 4 moderate, 4 severe, 3 recovered, 2 mild; all had aphasia initially 5 anomic, 4 Broca's, 3 recovered, 1 Wernicke's
Papoutsi et al. (2011) Not at all Sentence-picture matching, grammaticality judgment, lexical decision, phonological discrimination, semantic categorization, sentence repetition, word repetition Not stated Not stated
Sebastian & Kiran (2011) Comprehensive battery WAB, BNT, portions of PALPA, PPT, CLQT AQ range 74.0-97.8 6 anomic, 2 recovered
Szaflarski et al. (2011) Severity and type BNT; phonemic fluency, semantic fluency, complex ideation from BDAE, PPVT, communicative activities log Moderate 4 Broca's, 3 anomic, 1 anomic/conduction
Tyler et al. (2011) Not at all Sentence-picture matching, grammaticality judgment, lexical decision, phonological discrimination, semantic categorization, sentence repetition, word repetition Not stated Not stated
Weiduschat et al. (2011) Type only AAT T1: TT range 0-45 errors; T2: TT range 0-44 errors T1: 5 Wernicke's, 2 Broca's, 2 global, 1 amnestic fluent; T2: not stated
Allendorfer et al. (2012) Severity and type TT, PPVT, BNT, semantic and phonemic fluency, complex ideation subtest of BDAE Moderate-severe; TT mean 25.5 ± 11.3; unclear how to reconcile moderate-severe severity with mostly anomic aphasia Mostly anomic with some non-fluent
Fridriksson et al. (2012a) Comprehensive battery WAB, BNT, AoS from ABA AQ mean 48.5 ± 20.6, range 20.9-73.5 Broca's
Fridriksson et al. (2012b) Severity and type WAB AQ mean 57.9 ± 25.8, range 17.2-95.2 13 Broca's, 10 anomic, 3 conduction, 2 Wernicke's, 1 global, 1 transcortical motor
Marcotte et al. (2012) Comprehensive battery Montreal-Toulouse Aphasia Battery, picture naming Moderate-severe 7 Broca's, 1 Broca's + AoS, 1 Wernicke's + AoS
Schofield et al. (2012) Severity only CAT 11 patients (plus one excluded) had moderate comprehension impairments, 9 had severe comprehension impairments; this distribution was bimodal Not stated
Wright et al. (2012) Not at all Sentence-picture matching Not stated Not stated
Szaflarski et al. (2013) Severity only TT, BNT, semantic fluency, phonemic fluency, PPVT, complex ideation subtest of BDAE Recovered: TT mean 43 ± 1, >= 41; non-recovered: TT mean 23 ± 12, < 41 Not stated
Thiel et al. (2013) Severity and type AAT T1: rTMS group: AAT sum of scores mean 251.5 ± 32.4; sham group: mean 251.1 ± 39.5; T2 not stated T1: rTMS group: 7 Wernicke's, 3 amnestic, 2 global, 1 Broca's; sham group: 5 Wernicke's, 3 Broca's, 2 global, 1 amnestic; T2: not stated
Abel et al. (2014) Type only AAT Not stated 8 Broca's, 3 Wernicke's, 1 fluent non-classifiable, 1 global, 1 transcortical sensory
Benjamin et al. (2014) Severity and type WAB, BNT, PPVT Intention group: AQ mean 65.5 ± 8.3; control group: AQ mean 71.9 ± 11.9 Intention group: 4 conduction, 2 Broca's, 1 anomic; control group: 4 anomic, 1 Broca's, 1 conduction, 1 transcortical motor
Brownsett et al. (2014) Not at all Not stated Not stated Not stated, but all had auditory comprehension and repetition deficits, and all could at least attempt to repeat
Mattioli et al. (2014) Comprehensive battery AAT, TT T1: TT range 2-45; T2: TT range 6-48; T3: TT range 21-48 T1: 8 Broca's, 3 anomic, 1 Wernicke's; T2: not stated
Mohr et al. (2014) Severity only BDAE, TT Mild-moderate; T1: TT range 15-49 errors (including 2 excluded patients) Not stated
Robson et al. (2014) Comprehensive battery BDAE, PPT, word-to-picture matching test from Cambridge Semantic Battery, single word reading aloud from PALPA BDAE comprehension range 6-26 (out of 32); BDAE comprehension scores and percentiles do not seem entirely commensurate All Wernicke's
Szaflarski et al. (2014) Not at all Not stated "complete or almost complete" recovery in a "substantial proportion" of the patients Not stated
van Hees et al. (2014) Comprehensive battery WAB, BNT, PPT, CAT, picture naming from International Picture Naming Project Database AQ range 57.3-91.6; 5 mild, 2 moderate, 1 mild-moderate 6 anomic, 2 conduction
Abel et al. (2015) Type only AAT Not stated 8 Broca's, 3 Wernicke's, 1 fluent non-classifiable, 1 global, 1 transcortical sensory
Kiran et al. (2015) Severity only WAB, BNT, PPT, CLQT AQ range 48.0-97.2 Not stated
Sandberg et al. (2015) Comprehensive battery WAB, BNT, subtests from PALPA, PPT, CLQT AQ range 41.7-99.2 6 anomic, 2 conduction, 1 Broca's, 1 transcortical motor
Geranmayeh et al. (2016) Comprehensive battery CAT, QPA "relatively mild stroke"; 17 patients were so mild that they were not aphasic per the CAT Not stated
Griffis et al. (2016) Severity and type BNT; phonemic fluency, semantic fluency, complex ideation from BDAE, PPVT, communicative activities log Moderate 4 Broca's, 3 anomic, 1 anomic/conduction
Sims et al. (2016) Severity and type WAB, BNT, PPT, CLQT AQ range 48.0-99.2 4 anomic, 2 Broca's, 2 conduction, 2 transcortical motor, 1 anomic or transcortical motor, 1 Broca's or conduction, 1 "N/A", 1 Wernicke's or conduction
Darkow et al. (2017) Comprehensive battery AAT Mild Not stated
Geranmayeh et al. (2017) Not at all CAT, QPA Not stated Not stated
Griffis et al. (2017a) Not at all BNT, semantic fluency, phonemic fluency Not stated Not stated
Griffis et al. (2017b) Not at all BNT, semantic fluency, phonemic fluency Not stated Not stated
Harvey et al. (2017) Comprehensive battery BDAE, BNT Mild-moderate All non-fluent
Nardo et al. (2017) Not at all BNT, one CAT subtest, two PALPA subtests Not stated Not stated
Nenert et al. (2017) Severity only TT, PPVT, BNT, semantic fluency, phonemic fluency, communicative activities log 6 mild (2 control, 4 CIAT); 5 moderate (3 control, 2 CIAT); 8 severe (3 control, 5 CIAT) Not stated
Qiu et al. (2017) Severity and type WAB Moderate-severe All Broca's
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017a) Comprehensive battery WAB, PNT Not stated 23 anomic, 11 Broca's, 3 conduction, 1 transcortical sensory, 1 Wernicke's
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017b) Comprehensive battery WAB, PNT AQ mean 77.7 ± 21.0, range 22.8-99.2 21 anomic, 7 Broca's, 3 conduction, 1 transcortical sensory
Dietz et al. (2018) Severity and type WAB, Reading Comprehension Battery for Aphasia AAC group: AQ range 37.6-82.4; usual care group: AQ range 36.7-89.2 AAC group: 2 Broca's, 1 anomic, 1 conduction, 1 global, 1 Wernicke's; usual care group: 2 anomic, 2 Broca's, 1 conduction, 1 Wernicke's
Hallam et al. (2018) Comprehensive battery Cambridge semantic battery, three additional semantic tasks, connected speech words per minute, repetition from PALPA Not stated 6 anomic, 2 Broca's, 2 global, 2 transcortical sensory, 1 mixed transcortical, 1 not stated
Nenert et al. (2018) Not at all PPVT, BNT, phonemic fluency, semantic fluency, complex ideation subtest of BDAE Not stated for study timepoints, but on admission, aphasia severity was assessed with the TT: 2 no aphasia per cutoff but clinical impression of aphasia, 5 mild, 6 moderate, 4 severe Not stated
Pillay et al. (2018) Not at all Pseudoword rhyme matching, semantic picture matching (similar to PPT-P), picture naming Not stated Not stated
Szaflarski et al. (2018) Comprehensive battery WAB, BNT, semantic fluency, phonemic fluency AQ range 10.4-94.6 8 anomic, 2 Broca's, 1 conduction, 1 global
van de Sandt-Koenderman et al. (2018) Comprehensive battery AAT, ANELT T1: subacute: ASRS median 1, range 0-2; ANELT range 10-29; chronic: ASRS median 1.5, range 1-2; ANELT range 20-29; T2: subacute: ASRS range 1-3; ANELT range 10-43; chronic: ASRS range 1-2; ANELT range 22-31 T1: all severe non-fluent; T2: not stated
van Oers et al. (2018) Comprehensive battery AAT, BNT T1: 8 moderate, 2 severe, 2 not stated; T2: 4 moderate, 3 recovered, 2 not stated, 1 mild, 1 severe T1: 6 Broca's, 3 anomic, 2 Wernicke's, 1 global; T2: 4 anomic, 3 recovered, 2 Broca's, 1 unclassified, 1 Wernicke's
Barbieri et al. (2019) Comprehensive battery WAB, Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS), Northwestern Naming Battery (NNB), analysis of spontaneous speech (Cinderella story) using Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis (NNLA) protocol AQ range 52.8-91.7 Not stated, except that "language deficits were consistent with nonfluent aphasia and agrammatism"
Johnson et al. (2019) Severity only WAB, BNT, PPT Treated group: AQ mean 60.1 ± 24.0, range 11.7-95.2; untreated group: AQ mean 65.8 ± 24.6, range 26.9-91.5 Not stated
Kristinsson et al. (2019) Severity and type WAB, PNT, PPT Typical BDNF genotype group: AQ mean 64.2 ± 20.3; atypical BDNF genotype group: AQ mean 54.3 ± 21.0 Typical BDNF genotype group: 25 Broca's, 12 anomic, 11 conduction, 2 transcortical motor aphasia, 2 Wernicke's, 1 global; atypical BDNF genotype group: 16 Broca's, 6 anomic, 6 conduction, 3 global, 3 Wernicke's
Purcell et al. (2019) Comprehensive battery Spelling (PALPA 40 and 54, and other word lists), oral reading (PALPA 35), reading comprehension (PALPA 51), spoken word-picture matching and picture naming tests from Northwestern Naming Battery, PPT-P; note no generic aphasia battery, but fairly complete coverage of language domains Spelling of untrained items range 51%-94% 4 orthographic working memory deficit, 8 orthographic long-term memory deficit, 9 both types of deficit
Sreedharan et al. (2019b) Severity only WAB translated into Malayalam AQ range approximately 50-80 Broca's or anomic
Hartwigsen et al. (2020) Not at all AAT 7 mild residual aphasia, 5 recovered Not stated
Stockert et al. (2020) Severity only AAT including TT, comprehension composite (LRScomp) and production composite (LRSprod) were derived Frontal group: T1 acute: LRScomp mean 0.48 ± 0.26; T2 subacute: LRScomp mean 0.64 ± 0.21; T3 chronic: LRScomp mean 0.91 ± 0.07; temporo-parietal group: T1 acute: LRScomp mean 0.63 ± 0.32; T2 subacute: LRScomp mean 0.79 ± 0.20; T3 chronic: LRScomp mean 0.91 ± 0.13 Not stated

Aphasia [column] = To what extent is the nature of aphasia characterized?; AABT = Aachen Aphasia Bedside Test; AAT = Aachen Aphasia Test; ABA = Apraxia Battery for Adults; ADP = Aphasia Diagnostic Profiles; ADPASS = Aphasia Diagnostic Profiles Aphasia Severity Score; ANELT = Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test; AoS = apraxia of speech; AQ = aphasia quotient; ASRS = Aphasia Severity Rating Scale; BDAE = Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination; BNT = Boston Naming Test; CAT = Comprehensive Aphasia Test; CETI = Communicative Effectiveness Index; CIAT = constraint-induced aphasia therapy; CLQT = Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test; LRS = Language Recovery Score; MIT = melodic intonation therapy; NAVS = Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences; PALPA = Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia; PNT = Philadelphia Naming Test; POp+ = pars opercularis damaged; POp- = pars opercularis spared; PPT = Pyramids and Palm Trees; PPVT = Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; pSTS = posterior superior temporal sulcus; QPA = Quantitative Production Analysis; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; T1, T2, etc. = first time point, second time point, etc.; TROG = Test for Reception of Grammar; TT = Token Test; WAB = Western Aphasia Battery; Yellow underline = minor limitation; Orange underline = moderate limitation.