Aphasia Neuroplasticity Review

Supplementary Table S2. Participants: Demographic data

StudyAgeSexHandednessTime post onset
Weiller et al. (1995) N (mean 58 years, range 50-66 years; controls were younger: mean 35 years; range 27-50 years) Y (6 M/0 F) Y (6 R/0 L) Y (range 5-117 months)
Belin et al. (1996) Y (mean 49.7 years, range 40-58 years) N Y (7 R/0 L) Y (range 15-149 months; including MIT for the most recent 1-108 months)
Ohyama et al. (1996) Y (mean 56.6 ± 11.8 years, range 38-75 years) Y (12 M/4 F) Y (16 R/0 L) N* (mean 15.1 ± 16.7 months, range 1.1-50.3 months; a mix of subacute and chronic participants; 8 of each)
Heiss et al. (1997) Y (range 33-66 years) Y (4 M/2 F) Y (6 R/0 L) Y (T1: ~4 weeks; T2: ~12-18 months)
Karbe et al. (1998) N (mean 57 years, range 34-78 years; controls not matched for age) Y (7 M/5 F); stated to be not matched, but difference not significant Y (12 R/0 L) Y (T1: mean 24 ± 11 days, ~3-4 weeks; T2: mean 19 ± 2 months, > 1 year)
Cao et al. (1999) Y (range 20-56 years) Y (1 M/5 F) Y (6 R/0 L) Y (range 5-32 months)
Heiss et al. (1999) Y (mean 56 ± 12 years, range 31-77 years; assume patient's age of 5.6 years is a typo for 56 years) Y (15 M/8 F) Y (23 R/0 L) Y (T1: ~2 weeks; T2: ~8 weeks)
Kessler et al. (2000) Y (piracetam group: mean 57.4 ± 13.5 years; placebo group: mean 56.3 ± 10.0 years) Y (13 M/11 F) Y (24 R/0 L) Y (T1: ~2 weeks; T2: ~8 weeks)
Rosen et al. (2000) N (mean 47 years, range 32-72 years; control participants not age-matched) Y (3 M/3 F) Y (6 R/0 L) Y (range 0.5-7.6 years)
Blasi et al. (2002) N (mean 48.6 years; patients and controls not closely matched for age, unclear if difference significant) Y (2 M/6 F) Y (8 R/0 L) N (> 6 months; actual TPO not stated)
Leff et al. (2002) Y (range 43-76 years) Y (11 M/4 F) Y (11 R/0 L) Y (range 5-76 months)
Blank et al. (2003) Y (POp+: median 50 years, range 36-72 years; POp-: median 61 years, range 39-70 years) Y (8 M/6 F) Y (14 R/0 L) Y (POp+: median 39 months, range 19-134 months; POp-: median 17 months, range 6-240 months)
Cardebat et al. (2003) Y (mean 58.4 ± 11.9 years, range 37-73 years) Y (7 M/1 F) Y (8 R/0 L) N* (T1: 58 ± 35 days, range 11-113 days; T2: 11.7 ± 1.6 months, range 320-460 days; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute)
Sharp et al. (2004) Y (median 58 years, range 39-72 years) Y (8 M/1 F) Y (9 R/0 L) Y (mean 45 months, range 14-145 months)
Zahn et al. (2004) Y (range 29-67 years) Y (6 M/1 F) Y (7 R/0 L) Y (range 6 months-4 years)
Crinion & Price (2005) Y (mean 62 ± 2.7 SEM years, range 34-75 years) Y (12 M/5 F) Y (17 R/0 L) Y (range 4-125 months; aphasia with temporal damage (n=8) mean 41 months; aphasia without temporal damage (n=9) mean 48 months)
de Boissezon et al. (2005) Y (mean 52.4 ± 13 years, range 31-69 years) Y (7 M/0 F) Y (7 R/0 L) N* (T1: mean 53 ± 35 days, range 11-108 days; T2: mean 12.2 ± 1.4 months; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute)
Connor et al. (2006) N (mean 48.6 years; patients and controls not closely matched for age, unclear if difference significant) Y (2 M/6 F) Y (8 R/0 L) N (> 6 months; actual TPO not stated)
Crinion et al. (2006) Y (range 32-85 years) Y (18 M/6 F) Y (24 R/0 L) N (mean 32 months, range 2-204 months; combines subacute and chronic patients)
Saur et al. (2006) Y (mean 51.9 ± 14.2 years, range 16-68 years) Y (11 M/3 F) Y (12 R/1 L) Y (T1 acute: mean 1.8 days, range 0-4 days; T2 subacute: mean 12.1 days, range 3-16 days; T3 chronic: mean 321 days, range 102-513 days)
Meinzer et al. (2008) Y (median 51.0 years, range 19-66 years) Y (7 M/4 F) Y (11 R/0 L) Y (median 32 months; range 6-480 months)
Raboyeau et al. (2008) N (mean 53.8 ± 14.7 years; controls were younger) Y (6 M/4 F) Y (10 R/0 L) Y (range 7-102 months)
Richter et al. (2008) Y (mean 58.3 years; range 42-73 years) Y (12 M/4 F) Y (16 R/0 L) N (> 12 months; actual TPO not stated)
de Boissezon et al. (2009) Y (range 31.2-74.2 years) Y (12 M/1 F) Y (13 R/0 L) N* (T1: mean 64 ± 32 days; T2: mean 11.8 ± 1.4 months; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute)
Fridriksson et al. (2009) Y (mean 58.8 ± 14.7 years, range 33-78 years) Y (6 M/5 F) N Y (range 10-101 months)
Menke et al. (2009) Y (range 34-67 years) Y (5 M/3 F) Y (8 R/0 L) Y (range 1.8-6.9 years)
Specht et al. (2009) N (mean 49 + 14 years, range 30-71 years; controls were younger) Y (9 M/3 F) N N (mean 1.9 ± 1.4 years, range 0.2-3.7 years; one non-chronic patient is included)
Warren et al. (2009) N (mean 65.8 ± 2.0 SEM years; controls were younger) Y (11 M/5 F) Y (16 R/0 L) N (mean 28.8 ± 9.2 months SEM; minimum time post onset not reported, but some patients in Crinion et al. (2006) were subacute)
Chau et al. (2010) Y (mean 63 ± 10 years, range 56-79 years) Y (5 M/2 F) Y (7 R/0 L) Y (mean 17 ± 8 months, range 8-28 months)
Fridriksson (2010) Y (mean 59.7 ± 12.3 years) Y (12 M/14 F) N Y (> 8 months; actual TPO not stated)
Fridriksson et al. (2010) Y (mean 61.9 years, range 41-81 years) N (7 M/8 F); not stated for controls N Y (mean 29.7 months, > 6 months)
Sharp et al. (2010) Y (median 58 years, range 39-72 years) Y (8 M/1 F) Y (9 R/0 L) Y (mean 45 months, range 14-145 months)
Thompson et al. (2010) Y (mean 54 years, range 38-66 years) Y (5 M/1 F) Y (6 R/0 L) Y (range 6-146 months)
Tyler et al. (2010) Y (mean 54 years, range 33-76 years) Y (11 M/3 F) Y (14 R/0 L) Y (mean 7 years, range 1.4-37.3 years)
van Oers et al. (2010) Y (mean 53 ± 14 years, range 29-74 years) Y (4 M/9 F) N (13 R/0 L); not stated for controls Y (range 1.3-4.7 years)
Papoutsi et al. (2011) Y (mean 56 ± 12 years, range 35-77 years) Y (11 M/3 F) Y (14 R/0 L) Y (mean 8 ± 9 years, range 2-40 years)
Sebastian & Kiran (2011) Y (range 40-79 years) N (5 M/3 F); control sex not stated, but reported to be matched Y (8 R/0 L) Y (mean 48.3 months, range 30-78 months)
Szaflarski et al. (2011) Y (mean 54.4 ± 12.7 years) Y (4 M/4 F) Y (8 R/0 L) Y (mean 5.3 ± 3.6 years, > 12 months)
Tyler et al. (2011) Y (mean 56 years, range 34-77 years) Y (11 M/3 F) Y (14 R/0 L) Y (mean 7 years, > 1.5 years)
Weiduschat et al. (2011) Y (range 59-83 years) Y (5 M/5 F) Y (10 R/0 L) Y (range 18-97 days; patients at different subacute stages of recovery)
Allendorfer et al. (2012) Y (mean 54.4 ± 9.5 years, range 38-78 years) Y (9 M/7 F) Y (16 R/0 L) Y (mean 3.7 ± 3.5 years, range 0.5-11.4 years)
Fridriksson et al. (2012a) Y (mean 56.9 ± 9.2 years, range 45-75 years) N (9 M/4 F); control sex not matched Y (12 R/1 L) Y (mean 63.8 ± 64.3 months, range 10-261 months)
Fridriksson et al. (2012b) Y (mean 59.2 years, range 33-81 years) N (14 M/16 F); not stated for controls N Y (mean 51.1 months, range 6-350 months)
Marcotte et al. (2012) Y (mean 62 ± 6.0 years, range 50-67 years) Y (5 M/4 F) Y (9 R/0 L) Y (mean 110.2 ± 92.5 months, range 50-300 months)
Schofield et al. (2012) Y (range 35.8-90.3 years) N (16 M/4 F); control sex not stated N Y (mean 3.5 years, range 0.6-8.6 years)
Wright et al. (2012) Y (mean 57.4 ± 12.5 years) Y (15 M/6 F) Y (21 R/0 L) Y (mean 6.5 ± 7.5 years, > 1.4 years)
Szaflarski et al. (2013) Y (recovered: mean 50 ± 13 years; non-recovered: mean 51 ± 13 years) Y (15 M/12 F) Y (27 R/0 L) Y (recovered: mean 2.1 ± 2.1 years; non-recovered: mean 4.9 ± 3.1 years)
Thiel et al. (2013) Y (rTMS group: mean 69.8 ± 8.0 years; sham group: mean 71.2 ± 7.8 years) N Y (24 R/0 L) Y (rTMS group: mean 37.5 ± 18.5 days; sham group: mean 50.6 ± 22.6 days)
Abel et al. (2014) Y (median 48 years, range 35-74 years) Y (10 M/4 F) Y (14 R/0 L) Y (median 41 months, range 11-72 months)
Benjamin et al. (2014) Y (intention group: mean 72.1 ± 10.5 years; control group: mean 63.0 ± 9.2 years) Y (8 M/6 F) Y (14 R/0 L) Y (intention group: mean 37.4 ± 33.5 months, range 12-87 months; control group: 38.1 ± 37.4 months, range 10-112 months)
Brownsett et al. (2014) Y (mean 60 years, range 37-84 years) Y (11 M/5 F) Y (16 R/0 L) Y (mean 4 years, range 6 months-11 years)
Mattioli et al. (2014) N (range 37-79 years; control ages not reported, though reported to be matched) N (7 M/5 F); control sex not stated, but reported to be matched Y (12 R/0 L) Y (T1: mean 2.2 ± 1.3 days; T2: mean 16.2 ± 1.3 days; T3: mean 190 ± 25.5 days)
Mohr et al. (2014) Y (range 41-76 years) Y (5 M/1 F) Y (6 R/0 L) Y (range 17-234 months (including excluded patients))
Robson et al. (2014) Y (mean 70.1 ± 8.7 years, range 59-87 years) Y (10 M/2 F) Y (12 R/0 L) Y (range 7-84 months)
Szaflarski et al. (2014) Y (mean 51.8 ± 15.1 years) Y (18 M/14 F) N Y (mean 3.2 ± 3.1 years, > 6 months)
van Hees et al. (2014) Y (mean 56.4 + 9.2 years; range 41-69 years) Y (3 M/5 F) Y (8 R/0 L) Y (mean 52.3 + 49.8 months; range 17-170 months)
Abel et al. (2015) Y (median 48 years, range 35-74 years) Y (10 M/4 F) Y (14 R/0 L) Y (median 41 months, range 11-72 months)
Kiran et al. (2015) Y (mean 58 years) Y (7 M/1 F) N Y (range 15-157 months)
Sandberg et al. (2015) Y (mean 59 years, range 47-75 years) Y (7 M/3 F) Y (10 R/0 L) Y (range 7-134 months)
Geranmayeh et al. (2016) Y (mean 62 ± 14 years, range 26-83 years) N (32 M/21 F); controls were mostly female, unlike patients Y (50 R/3 L) Y (mean 111 ± 27 days, range 84-200 days)
Griffis et al. (2016) Y (mean 54.4 ± 12.7 years) Y (4 M/4 F) Y (8 R/0 L) Y (mean 5.3 ± 3.6 years)
Sims et al. (2016) Y (mean 59.7 years, range 48-75 years) Y (10 M/4 F) Y (14 R/0 L) Y (mean 6 years, range 6 months-13 years)
Darkow et al. (2017) Y (mean 56.7 ± 10.1 years) Y (10 M/6 F) Y (16 R/0 L) Y (mean 54.3 ± 45.3 months, range 12-169 months)
Geranmayeh et al. (2017) Y (mean 59.1 ± 10.8 years, range 39-77 years) Y (18 M/9 F) Y (26 R/1 L) Y (T1: 15 ± 7.6 days (range 5-35 days); T2: 108 ± 26 days (range 87-200 days))
Griffis et al. (2017a) Y (mean 53 ± 15 years, range 23-90 years) Y (25 M/18 F) Y (41 R/2 L) Y (range 1-14 years)
Griffis et al. (2017b) Y (mean 53 ± 15 years, range 23-90 years) Y (25 M/18 F) Y (41 R/2 L) Y (range 1-14 years)
Harvey et al. (2017) Y (range 47-75 years) Y (5 M/1 F) Y (6 R/0 L) Y (range 6-102 months)
Nardo et al. (2017) Y (mean 50 ± 12 years, range 21-67 years) Y (12 M/6 F) Y (18 R/0 L) Y (mean 61 ± 58 months, range 5-264 months)
Nenert et al. (2017) Y (CIAT group: mean 58.0 ± 10.6 years; untreated group: mean 50.3 ± 13.3 years) Y (11 M/8 F) N (17 R/0 L); 2 patients "atypical": unclear whether L or mixed Y (CIAT group: mean 60.2 ± 48.9 months; untreated group: mean 41.9 ± 30.0 months; all > 1 year)
Qiu et al. (2017) Y (mean 55.9 ± 13.4 years, range 40-70 years) Y (7 M/3 F) Y (10 R/0 L) Y (range 1-3 months)
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017a) Y (mean 59.8 ± 10.0 years) Y (26 M/13 F) Y (33 R/4 L); missing for 2 participants Y (mean 52.9 ± 51.4 months, range 6.3-255.7 months)
Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017b) Y (mean 58.8 ± 8.6 years, range 45.7-78.2 years) Y (19 M/12 F); stated to be not matched, but difference not significant Y (26 R/3 L) Y (mean 40.9 ± 36.1 months, 4.9-151.0 months)
Dietz et al. (2018) Y (AAC group: range 39-63 years; usual care group: range 47-71 years) Y (5 M/7 F) Y (11 R/1 L) Y (AAC group: range 16-170 months; usual care group: range 38-105 months)
Hallam et al. (2018) Y (mean 61 ± 11 years, range 38-80 years) Y (5 M/9 F) N Y (range 11-264 months)
Nenert et al. (2018) Y (mean 46 ± 16 years) Y (9 M/8 F) N (17 R/0 L); all patients stated to be right handed, but "ambidextrous patients" mentioned on p. 364 Y (T1: ~2 weeks; T2: ~6 weeks; T3: ~12 weeks; T4: ~26 weeks; T5: ~52 weeks)
Pillay et al. (2018) Y (mean 56.4 ± 12.5 years, range 30-80 years) Y (11 M/10 F) Y (21 R/0 L) Y (mean 1134 ± 1491 days, range 180-6732 days)
Szaflarski et al. (2018) Y (range 26-66 years) Y (9 M/3 F) Y (11 R/1 L) Y (range 1-12 years)
van de Sandt-Koenderman et al. (2018) Y (subacute: mean 51.2 years, range 25-61 years; chronic: mean 54.0 years, range 21-66 years) Y (5 M/4 F) Y (8 R/0 L) Y (subacute: range 0.5-3 months; chronic: range 17-40 months)
van Oers et al. (2018) Y (mean 67.9 ± 11.4 years, range 46-86 years) Y (10 M/2 F) Y (12 R/0 L) N* (T1: within 2 weeks; T2: ~3 months; T3: ~6 months; T4: ~12 months; specific timing of first time point not stated)
Barbieri et al. (2019) N (range 22-73 years; controls were younger) Y (11 M/7 F) N (15 R/3 L); not stated for controls Y (range 13-107 months)
Johnson et al. (2019) Y (treated group: mean 62.8 ± 10.2 years, range 42-80 years; untreated group: mean 59.0 ± 11.8 years, range 39-79 years) Y (21 M/9 F) Y (27 R/3 L) Y (treated group: mean 58.3 ± 51.8 months, range 12-170 months; untreated group: mean 85.2 ± 141.9 months, range 10-467 months)
Kristinsson et al. (2019) Y (typical BDNF genotype group mean 59.6 ± 11.2 years, range 29-77 years; atypical BDNF genotype group mean 57.7 ± 10.9 years, range 30-76 years) Y (58 M/29 F) Y (87 R/0 L) Y (typical BDNF genotype group: mean 44.0 ± 38.7 months; atypical BDNF genotype group: mean 34.5 ± 36.9 months; all participants > 6 months)
Purcell et al. (2019) Y (range 40-80 years) Y (13 M/8 F) Y (16 R/3 L) Y (range 14-209 months)
Sreedharan et al. (2019b) N (range 18-68 years; controls were younger) Y (7 M/1 F) Y (8 R/0 L) N (6-22 weeks; patients at different subacute stages of recovery)
Hartwigsen et al. (2020) Y (mean 58.8 years, range 43-72 years) Y (8 M/4 F) Y (12 R/0 L) Y (mean 37.9 ± 34.8 months, range 6-122 months)
Stockert et al. (2020) Y (frontal group: mean 52.3 ± 18.9 years, range 15-78 years; temporo-parietal group: mean 54.4 ± 12.7 years, range 31-76 years) Y (25 M/9 F) N (31 R/2 L); not stated for controls Y (frontal group: T1 acute: mean 3.2 ± 2.0 days, range 1-7 days; T2 subacute: mean 11.9 ± 2.2 days, range 8-17 days; T3 chronic: mean 272.6 ± 88.5 days, range 181-435 days; temporo-parietal group: T1 acute: mean 1.6 ± 0.8 days, range 1-4 days; T2 subacute: mean 10.1 ± 1.7 days, range 8-13 days; T3 chronic: mean 262.5 ± 75.0 days, range 184-394 days)

Age = Is age reported for patients and controls, and matched?; Sex = Is sex reported for patients and controls, and matched?; Handedness = Is handedness reported for patients and controls, and matched?; Time post onset = Is time post stroke onset reported and appropriate to the study design?; AAC = Augmentative and Alternative Communication; CIAT = constraint-induced aphasia therapy; F = female; L = left; M = male; MIT = melodic intonation therapy; N = No; POp+ = pars opercularis damaged; POp- = pars opercularis spared; R = right; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnatic stimulation; SEM = standard error of the mean; T1, T2, etc. = first time point, second time point, etc.; TPO = time post onset; Y = Yes; Yellow underline = minor limitation; Orange underline/* = moderate limitation.